The Different Body Systems
This is the external covering of the body which is mainly known as skin. Its main functions are to provide cushions, waterproof and protect the deeper tissues from any injury. This is where temperature, pain receptors and pressure are located. Temperature is primarily regulated from the excreted urea and salts during perspiration.
It consists with the bone, joints, cartilage and ligaments. This system is the one that supports and provides structure to the body that is used for movement.
Muscular system is composed of the muscles in the body. The main function of this system is to contract or shorten thus, producing body movement.
The nervous system is known as the body’s fast-acting control system. There are four main organs in this system- the brain, spinal cord, nerves and sensory receptors.
This system controls the activities made in the body but acts slowly. Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries (women) and testes (men) are called the endocrine glands and they secrete and regulate hormones throughout the body. This system acts on the growth, reproduction and metabolism through the hormones.
The heart and blood vessels are the primary organs of this system. Cardiovascular system mainly acts on transporting the blood which carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones and other substances in the entire body.
The role of this system complements the function of the cardiovascular system. Its main organs are the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs like the tonsils and spleen. The lymph nodes together with other lymphoid organs help in cleansing the blood and cells, the lymphatic vessels, on the other hand, aids in the continuous circulation of the blood.
The respiratory systems organs consist of the following: nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. This system is the one responsible for constantly supplying the body with oxygen and removing the carbon dioxide.
This system is commonly referred to as a tube running all throughout the body from the mouth to the anus. Digestive system consists of the following organs- oral cavity (mouth), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, and rectum. Its functions are breaking down food and delivering its products to the blood. This is the system that is also responsible for digesting the food. There are two organs seen in other systems that also act as a digestive organ- the liver and pancreas.
Liver: produces bile that helps in breaking down the fats
Pancreas: delivers digestive enzymes to the small intestines
The main function of this system is to remove waste products from the body. It expels out the nitrogen-waste products, examples are urea and uric acid, from the blood and flushes out as urine. This is commonly known as the excretory system and is composed of the following organs- kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
Another important functions of the urinary system are to maintain the body’s water and salt (also known as electrolyte) balance and also acid-base balance regulation.
This system exists in the body for the main purpose of producing offspring. The male and female has different reproductive organs.
Male: testes (produces sperm), scrotum, penis, accessory glands, duct system (carries sperm)
Female: ovaries (produces ova or also known as eggs), uterine tubes, uterus and vagina.
Source: Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology,8th edition,Elaine N. Marieb,Pearson Education, Inc.,2006